Wednesday, March 27, 2013

Energy Efficient Cluster Heads in Wireless Sensor Networks

Cluster Head (CH) is also a wireless sensor node, which has more computational power comparing to all other sensor nodes. These cluster Heads are responsible for sharing all other sensor nodes information to the Base Station. The Base Station selects the Cluster head.

Cluster Heads broadcasts identifier message to all other wireless sensor nodes (Adjacent Nodes). The adjacent nodes replies with identifier acknowledgement to the cluster head.

The Cluster Head manages the routing table and also the details of all the nodes in its group. The Cluster Head also maintains details about other groups Cluster Head and its address with the help of Base station.

The normal sensor node in a group maintains a table that contains information of its Cluster Head address and the common identifier generated by the Cluster Head.

The address of the Cluster Head that has already involved in routing has stored in every packet, it is used for verification by other Cluster Head.

When a source node in a need of route to deliver packets to the destination node, it sends Route Request message to the Cluster Head, the Cluster Head uses its common identifier to verify the packets.

The Cluster Head checks whether the destination node is in house, if the destination node is present under its group, then it sends the packet directly. If the destination node is not in house then it sends Route Request message to Base Station, The Base Station intent passes it to the Cluster Head which manages the Destination node. The Cluster Head passes then passes packets to the Destination node.

The sensor node under motion makes new route request to the Cluster Head, then Cluster Head passes the information to the base station. Source node and destination node under range directly communicates with each other with the help of adjacent nodes.

If the source node detects destination node is under its range it sends route change request to cluster head and it starts sending packets directly to the destination node(shortest path) through nearby adjacent nodes.

Thursday, March 21, 2013

SMS Gateway integration in PHP

The integration SMS API / Gateway with the PHP Code is very easy to implement

Following is the description of how to send SMS to a user who has registered on our web page. First of all, we have to add an HTML Element that will accept Mobile Number of the user. This mobile number value will be posted to the next PHP Page. Here, using CURL (Client URL) Library, we can post the mobile number field value to the SMS API

<form action=submit.php method=post>
Username <input type=text name=u>
Password <input type=password name=p>
Mobile Number <input type=text name=m>
<input type=submit value="Register">

PHP Page

$ch = curl_init();


// set URL and other appropriate options
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_URL, "$url");
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_HEADER, false);

// grab URL and pass it to the browser

// close cURL resource, and free up system resources
echo "Successful Register ... Confirmation sent to your Mobile Number";


Writing Review / Survey Paper

Writing a Review or Survey Paper is the first step in the start of the Dissertation / Thesis Work during the Research Degree. In general, the students are not aware about how to write a review paper on their subject / research topic.

In a Review Paper, the student is expected to specify the overview of the proposed research topic.

The review or survey paper consists of the following points
  • Abstract (Around 250 Words) : A brief abstract / summary is written in a way such that the overall paper can be judged and understood by reading it. Abstract should be written in one paragraph only. Moreover, any kind of citation or reference is not mentioned in the Abstract
  • Abstract : A list of 5-6 Keywords, Alphabetically Ordered is mentioned here. All keywords should be comma separated
  • Introduction : A General Introduction of the subject / topic is given in this phase. It do not contain any research work. It can be considered as the simple notes of the topic. The diagrams, tables, graphs can be included to defend the subject / topic.
  • Literature Survey : Extracts of 3-4 Research Papers are mentioned in the literature survey with appropriate citation
  • Conclusion
  • Scope of Future Work
  • References

Select the Research Topic and Area Very Carefully

The Students on the edge to start Dissertation / Thesis Work of M.Tech. / M.Phil. / M.E. / Ph.D. or any other Research Degree generally face the problems and confusion regarding selection of the research area and topic.

Initially, they are not clear about the area on which they should start the work. This stage is very sensitive when the student is required to propose a research topic to the guide as well as the university.

Many students select the research topic depending upon the availability of the research guide without thinking about their own interest and expertise. 

In this phase, without thinking very deeply on hundreds of areas, the student should explore the own strengths and interests.

There are some subjects and topics in which the student generally scores very good marks and read that subject again and again because this subject seems interesting. Such subjects should be fetched by the student to select the research area.

If a student choose the research area based on the interests, obviously this interest or passion will help to explore and complete the thesis work.

Students should not go for very difficult and high profile topics just to impress the research panel and guide.

The research scholars should select the most interesting subject for finding the research topic. It will definitely help the student to start and complete the task with interest, passion and hobby

Graceful Departure from the Workplace with an Exit Interview

Once an offer letter with high pay and perks is accepted from a new organization, the next step is to submit notice to the current organization. Many times, people join an organization with expectations for growth, but due to many reasons, have to float their resume in search of new organization to start a new life at new place. There may be many reasons of shifting from the current job including lack of expertise and experience in the domain, hopeless behavior of superiors. Once the patience of employee falls down in the current environment, the person starts thinking to move to new organization. But the person should not burn the bridge by spoiling the relation with that organization because you may converge again to some point.

This phase of giving notice letter or resignation to an organization is considered as the most sensitive phase or ceremony which can stun any organization especially when that employee was favorite in the sight of top hierarchy and was working in excellent way. The employee becomes history very soon once the resignation is accepted. Even the colleagues who arrange a farewell party barely remember the name of outgoing colleague a week later.

Now, it should be noted that the entire process or ceremony of leaving the job should be professional, graceful and friendly without any dispute. The person offering the resignation or notice letters should consider some points before finally moving out from main gate of the company.

One should make an appointment with the boss and deliver the resignation letter in humble, respectful, courteous and professional manner. Some of the reasons of leaving can be told verbally because face-to-face communication is considered as more effective and pleasant.

A Brief Letter of Notice/Resignation should have only following points
  • That the person is leaving the current organization
  • The last date in the organization
  • Few appreciating words about the colleagues as well as opportunities found in the company
 The Letter of Notice should not include the following information
  •     Address of the new Employer
  •     The designation in the new Organization
  •     Excitement of joining the new organization
  •     Salary offered by the new Employer
  •     Any bad feeling or happiness on leaving the Job

A true professional should change the job gracefully keeping the head up while crossing any street. Here are some guidelines which should be followed at the time of resignation –

Official Intimation - The employee should not send the resignation through E-mail, Letter, Fax or Phone as coward person. The notice period or resignation should be intimated personally to the concerned manager so that the impression of employee remains good. In many cases, employee leave the organization without official intimation.

Avoid Counter-Offer - One should be very clear about the decision of leaving the job unless aiming for a counter-offer. Once the employee has decided to resign, the loyalty of that employee becomes suspicious and the employee should not look for increments or sudden hike in salary. The employer can make a counter-offer only to retain employee, until they get a cheaper or better replacement. Moreover, the employees who accept such counter-offer do not stay very long in the organization.

Give Proper Notice - The employee should give proper notice before leaving the job. Many organizations mark the name of employee in the absconders’ list who leaves the job without proper notice.

Avoid Discussions with Employees - Avoid discussing with your colleagues that you will be giving notice after few days. Inform to the concerned authority only regarding your resignation or notice period.

Thank All before Leaving - The outgoing person should thank the boss as well as coworkers, even if the employee hate them all and can’t tolerate to see even their faces.

An Exit interview is conducted just before the employee says Bye-Bye to the organization. An exit interview can be conducted by the company at any time from the moment an employee hand-over the resignation letter. From employer’s side, it is important to identify the reasons of departure of their outgoing member. It can provide invaluable feedback to employer about the Working Environment, Human Resource Policies, The Terms and Conditions as well as the expectations of workers. Exit interview is conducted face-to-face so that actual feeling or grievance of the outgoing person can be recorded. However, in some cases feedback may be received from a shy person by offering a questionnaire but face-to-face communication is considered as the best.

Here, the leaving employee should answer in calm and cool manner with very honesty without saying anything wrong about Internal Politics, Bad Attitude of Boss and other common attributes. One should remember that what is told in the exit interview is noted by the company. It helps the managers to change some of the internal components to keep their employees happy for long time.

Everything is fine but most of the employees say that exit interviews are useless because it is too late to benefit the worker. In many cases, companies do not care about any grievances and expectations of the employees.

Here are some points which should be considered and prepared well while appearing in the Exit Interview -
  • One should face the exit interview in humble and polite manner without leaving any impression wrong about the personality.
  • The outgoing employee should not sign official papers in hurry just to get relieved soon from the organization. It may create problems in future.
  • The leaving person should return all the company property to the authorized person with proper receiving. It may include office documents, drawer keys or laptop.
  • The outgoing employee should not comment on Internal Politics, Sex Discrimination, Flattery of Colleagues and Bad behavior of Boss.
  • Be sure that the relation with the organization stay amenable so that in future they may call you as an expert or resource person.

It is discovered from various surveys and analysis that today’s employee is moving in between various jobs very frequently due to hurry in earning lots of money in short time span. It is not bad to earn lot of money but a true professional should take care of number of factors before joining the another organization. The problem of work overload, boss or internal politics may appear in other organization. So, these reasons should not be the base of leaving the current job.

The job aspirants should take care of major concerns including career growth, designation, salary or allied benefits while switching the job rather than small problems.

Following is the list of common factors which should be analyzed before joining the new workplace -
  •     Location of Office and feasibility (transport facility) to move there
  •     Designation and Responsibilities
  •     Salary and Perks
  •     Appraisal Schemes and Promotion Prospects
  •     Environment of Learning
  •     Working Hours
  •     Production & Sales targets
  •     Work Environment

Generally, it is not just the performance or workplace culture which urges them to shift from the job. Many people make moves for different reasons such as escaping from a long journey/up-down, time with family, or even not feeling secured in the area where the office is located. After all, everybody moves out of home for earning to make the future of family secured. The matter is not concerned with the reason of shifting the job, but to change the job in the graceful and professional way so that your name is recalled in that organization with respect and sincere person.

Check your Contents in the Thesis before Submission

The rule of anti-plagiarism / copyright protection has become very strict in India as well as the World. If you are a Research Scholar pursuing any Degree, you are advised to double check your content to make sure it is not having copied material from any source. Any source includes from any media. The universities of the world has set up the research monitoring committees and have been instructed to use the anti-plagiarism software before thesis submission.

It is also now part of the rule that in case the thesis / dissertation work is caught copied even after the award of the degree, the student as well the guide shall be penalized.

The University Grants Commission of India and other functionaries of the World has directed the Universities to notify that all thesis shall be submitted in Hard Copy as well as Soft Copy.

All these Soft Copies having dissertations and thesis will be sent for investigation and will be uploaded on the Server in Public Domain.

A number of Online Software / Tools are available for Plagiarism Check. You can search "Online Plagiarism Checker". A number of online services will be listed and you can check you contents paragraph wise on these online plagiarism checker tools.

The students can also purchase a good quality software to test the contents.

As per the reports of Times of India Date 6-February-2013, the Germany's education minister Annette Schavan (57) stripped off her doctorate title after an inquiry confirmed plagiarism in her thesis, which was written by her 33 years ago.

Writing Synopsis (Research Proposals)

Synopsis (Research Proposal) Writing is one of the important task that should be done very carefully.

Generally, the synopsis is written by the research scholars / supervisors in very haphazard / careless manner or in hurry. But once the synopsis is approved by the university, it becomes very dangerous if all points written in the  synopsis are not clear to the student / guide.

Classical Format of the Synopsis (Research Proposal)
  • Abstract and Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Literature Review and Existing Paradigm
  • Proposed Plan of the Research Work
  • Research Methodology
  • Hypothesis
  • Objectives
  • Flowchart of the Proposed Plan
  • Conclusion
  • Future Work
  • References
All of these points are very very important but as far as sensitive nature of the Synopsis is concerned, the OBJECTIVES AND HYPOTHESIS must be written very carefully

The RDC / DRC / Research Committee of the University focus on the Objectives and Hypothesis and approve the Synopsis based on the points given in the Objectives.

Students / Guides should specify the Hypothesis and Objectives with utmost care.

Generally, students / guides give very Hi-Fi Objectives to impress the Research Committee and after approval of the Synopsis, it becomes a big headache because the student must have to finish all the Objectives to finish the Degree

It is also a general practice to include the rich References / Bibliography without knowledge of the citation. It is also very dangerous in case it is pointed out at the time of Viva-Voce. The Research Scholars should specify only those references that have been cited.

It is advised to the Research Scholars to write the Objectives very carefully and confidently that they will be able to implement all of the Objectives mentioned in the Synopsis

Entrepreneur Vs. Employee


Attached is the Presentation of my Expert Lecture delivered in the Workshop on Entrepreneurship at JMIT, Radaur, Yamunanager, Haryana, India

The Slides highlights the Challenges and Opportunities in starting a New Business

I have tried to overcome the fear in the minds of people that starting a new business is very risky and difficult task for a person.

We are given ONE LIFE and we should atleast try to give a real shape to our dreams rather than thinking about the failures and risks

Wednesday, March 20, 2013

WEKA : An Excellent Data Mining and Machine Learning Software in Java

Weka (Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis) is one of the prominent software suite with machine learning and data mining algorithms. WEKA is originally coded in Java and developed at the University of Waikato, New Zealand.

Weka is Free and Open Source Software under the GNU General Public License.

The Software can be downloaded from 

Weka is having tools and in-built algorithm for data pre-processing, classification, regression, clustering, association rules, and visualization

The Existing Algorithms and Tools of WEKA can be customized using Java Programming.

WEKA is having rich API written in Java and can be customized