Friday, February 8, 2019

Open Source Tools and Libraries for Research and Development

The domain of data science, analytics and knowledge discovery are the key domains of research in heterogeneous segments. The need to analyze the data for predictive mining and deep mining is always required so that the predictions and decision making can be done with higher degree of accuracy and minimum error rate.

Following are few of the prominent tools and technologies which can be used for data science, analytics and knowledge discovery
  • Python Programming
  • Scikit-Learn
  • OpenCV
  • Open AI
  • Scilab
  • Octave
  • PSPP
  • WEKA
  • Tanagra
  • TensorFlow
  • Keras
  • PyTorch
                       and many others

Monday, February 4, 2019

Nature Inspired Algorithms and Techniques for Research

While solving the optimization problems, there are many types of solutions which can be used in different research areas.

The use of Nature Inspired Techniques and Algorithms are under research from a long time in the domain of optimization. Such techniques integrates the use of natural processes or phenomena used by the creatures, animals and other natural objects.

Nature Inspired Algorithms (NIA) can be used to have higher degree of optimization because the techniques which are given by the Nature to the earth and human being are considered as the most optimized techniques without any error rate.

These NIA approaches can be used to solve the problems for different domains of research including Computer Science, Information Technology, Cloud Computing, Grid Applications, Metallurgy, Mechanical Engineering, Production Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Power Systems, Electrical Load Balancing, Load Distribution and many others.

Following are the main Nature Inspired Algorithms which can be used for solving the research problems
  • Altruism Algorithm
  • Animal Migration Optimization (AMO) Algorithm
  • Animals Friendship Algorithm
  • Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm (ACO)
  • Aritificial Chemical Process Algorithm
  • Aritificial Chemical Reaction Optimization Algorithm
  • Artificial Algae Algorithm (AAA) 
  • Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm
  • Artificial Ecosystem Algorithm (AEA)
  • Artificial Fish School Algorithm
  • Artificial immune systems (AIS) 
  • Bacteria Chemotaxis (BC) Algorithm
  • Bacterial Colony Optimization
  • Bacterial Evolutionary Algorithm (BEA)
  • Bacterial Foraging Optimization
  • Bat Algorithm
  • Bees Algorithm
  • Biogeography-based Optimization (BBO)
  • Bird Mating Optimizer
  • Black Holes Algorithm
  • Bull optimization algorithm
  • Bumble Bees Mating Optimization (BBMO) Algorithm
  • Central Force Optimization
  • Collective Animal Behaviour (CAB) Algorithm
  • Chemical Reaction Algorithm
  • Cuckoo Search (CS)
  • Cultural Algorithms (CA
  • Cuttlefish Algorithm
  • Cow Grazing Approach
  • Differential Evolution (DE)
  • Differential Search Algorithm (DS
  • Eagle Strategy
  • Elephant herding optimization (EHO)
  • Firefly Algorithm (FA) 
  • Fireworks algorithm for optimization
  • Flower pollination algorithm (FPA)
  • Forest Optimization Algorithm
  • Gases Brownian Motion Optimization
  • Genetic Algorithm (GA)
  • Glowworm Swarm Optimization (GSO)
  • Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA)
  • Grey Wolf Optimizer
  • Group Search Optimizer
  • Harmony Search (HS)
  • Honey-Bees Mating Optimization (HBMO) Algorithm
  • Hunting Search Algorithm
  • Intelligent Water Drops algorithm, or the IWD algorithm
  • Invasive Weed Optimization (IWO)
  • Krill Herd
  • League Championship Algorithm (LCA)
  • Lion Optimization Algorithm (LOA)
  • Marriage in Honey Bees Optimization (MBO)
  • Memetic Algorithm (MA)
  • Mine blast algorithm
  • Optics Inspired Optimization (OIO)
  • Parliamentary optimization algorithm POA
  • Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)
  • Plant Propagation Algorithm
  • River Formation Dynamics
  • Roach Infestation Optimization (RIO)
  • Seed Based Plant Propagation Algorithm
  • Self-propelled Particles
  • Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm (SFLA)
  • Simulated annealing (SA)
  • Social Cognitive Optimization (SCO)
  • Social Spider Optimization (SSO)
  • Spider Monkey Optimization (SMO) algorithm
  • Spiral Dynamic Algorithm (SDA)
  • Strawberry Algorithm
  • Tabu Search
  • The Raven Roosting Optimization Algorithm
  • Vortex Search Algorithm
  • Water Cycle Algorithm 
  • Water Wave Optimization and many others

Wednesday, January 30, 2019

Never Use Content Spinning Software or Rewriting Software to Remove Plagiarism from Paper or Report

It is generally seen that the research scholars and the academicians use different software for removing the plagiarism.

Such software perform the operations and change the language using following techniques to remove the plagiarism
  • Content Spinning
  • Content Re-Writing
  • Content Para-Phrasing
These techniques must be avoided by the academicians, authors, researchers because such software only change the language by using the Synonyms and Similar Words in the sentences. These software damage and change the overall meaning and theme of the text which is very dangerous and not acceptable in the research manuscripts.

The authors, researchers and students are advised to change the language or sentence by manual rewriting rather than any other software.

For Example:

The sentence

"Cloud Computing is one of the key areas of research in the domain of high performance computing"

can be changed manually to

"In high performance computing, the cloud applications is one of the prominent areas of research"

Wednesday, March 27, 2013

Energy Efficient Cluster Heads in Wireless Sensor Networks

Cluster Head (CH) is also a wireless sensor node, which has more computational power comparing to all other sensor nodes. These cluster Heads are responsible for sharing all other sensor nodes information to the Base Station. The Base Station selects the Cluster head.

Cluster Heads broadcasts identifier message to all other wireless sensor nodes (Adjacent Nodes). The adjacent nodes replies with identifier acknowledgement to the cluster head.

The Cluster Head manages the routing table and also the details of all the nodes in its group. The Cluster Head also maintains details about other groups Cluster Head and its address with the help of Base station.

The normal sensor node in a group maintains a table that contains information of its Cluster Head address and the common identifier generated by the Cluster Head.

The address of the Cluster Head that has already involved in routing has stored in every packet, it is used for verification by other Cluster Head.

When a source node in a need of route to deliver packets to the destination node, it sends Route Request message to the Cluster Head, the Cluster Head uses its common identifier to verify the packets.

The Cluster Head checks whether the destination node is in house, if the destination node is present under its group, then it sends the packet directly. If the destination node is not in house then it sends Route Request message to Base Station, The Base Station intent passes it to the Cluster Head which manages the Destination node. The Cluster Head passes then passes packets to the Destination node.

The sensor node under motion makes new route request to the Cluster Head, then Cluster Head passes the information to the base station. Source node and destination node under range directly communicates with each other with the help of adjacent nodes.

If the source node detects destination node is under its range it sends route change request to cluster head and it starts sending packets directly to the destination node(shortest path) through nearby adjacent nodes.

Thursday, March 21, 2013

SMS Gateway integration in PHP

The integration SMS API / Gateway with the PHP Code is very easy to implement

Following is the description of how to send SMS to a user who has registered on our web page. First of all, we have to add an HTML Element that will accept Mobile Number of the user. This mobile number value will be posted to the next PHP Page. Here, using CURL (Client URL) Library, we can post the mobile number field value to the SMS API

<form action=submit.php method=post>
Username <input type=text name=u>
Password <input type=password name=p>
Mobile Number <input type=text name=m>
<input type=submit value="Register">

PHP Page

$ch = curl_init();


// set URL and other appropriate options
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_URL, "$url");
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_HEADER, false);

// grab URL and pass it to the browser

// close cURL resource, and free up system resources
echo "Successful Register ... Confirmation sent to your Mobile Number";


Writing Review / Survey Paper

Writing a Review or Survey Paper is the first step in the start of the Dissertation / Thesis Work during the Research Degree. In general, the students are not aware about how to write a review paper on their subject / research topic.

In a Review Paper, the student is expected to specify the overview of the proposed research topic.

The review or survey paper consists of the following points
  • Abstract (Around 250 Words) : A brief abstract / summary is written in a way such that the overall paper can be judged and understood by reading it. Abstract should be written in one paragraph only. Moreover, any kind of citation or reference is not mentioned in the Abstract
  • Abstract : A list of 5-6 Keywords, Alphabetically Ordered is mentioned here. All keywords should be comma separated
  • Introduction : A General Introduction of the subject / topic is given in this phase. It do not contain any research work. It can be considered as the simple notes of the topic. The diagrams, tables, graphs can be included to defend the subject / topic.
  • Literature Survey : Extracts of 3-4 Research Papers are mentioned in the literature survey with appropriate citation
  • Conclusion
  • Scope of Future Work
  • References

Select the Research Topic and Area Very Carefully

The Students on the edge to start Dissertation / Thesis Work of M.Tech. / M.Phil. / M.E. / Ph.D. or any other Research Degree generally face the problems and confusion regarding selection of the research area and topic.

Initially, they are not clear about the area on which they should start the work. This stage is very sensitive when the student is required to propose a research topic to the guide as well as the university.

Many students select the research topic depending upon the availability of the research guide without thinking about their own interest and expertise. 

In this phase, without thinking very deeply on hundreds of areas, the student should explore the own strengths and interests.

There are some subjects and topics in which the student generally scores very good marks and read that subject again and again because this subject seems interesting. Such subjects should be fetched by the student to select the research area.

If a student choose the research area based on the interests, obviously this interest or passion will help to explore and complete the thesis work.

Students should not go for very difficult and high profile topics just to impress the research panel and guide.

The research scholars should select the most interesting subject for finding the research topic. It will definitely help the student to start and complete the task with interest, passion and hobby